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Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels - Stainless Steel and Corrosion

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Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels - Stainless Steel and Corrosion

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17-4ph stainless steel corrosion resistance, 15-5 stainless steel corrosion resistance, 201 stainless steel corrosion resistance, 202 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Stainless Steels - Corrosion Resistance
Ferritic stainless steels. Ferritic stainless steels generally have better engineering properties than austenitic grades, but have reduced corrosion resistance, because of the lower chromium and nickel content. They are also usually less expensive.

Stainless Steels - Corrosion Resistance

Corrosion resistanse of AISI stainless steels in various environments

Corrosion resistance of AISI Stainless Steels in typical environments:

AISI Type Fresh Water and Mild Atmospheric Environments Industrial Environments Marine Environments Mild Chemicals Oxidizing Chemicals Reducing Chemicals
201
202
205
301
302
302B
303
303 Se
304
304L
304N
305
308
309
309S
310
310S
314
316
316F
316L
316N
317
317L
321
329
330
347
348
384
403
405
409
410
414
416
416 Se
420
420F
422
429
430
430F
430F Se
431
434
436
440A
440B
440C
442
446

• considered as resistant to the environment category


17-4PH Stainless Steel Corrosion Resistance

The corrosion resistance of Alloy 17-4PH is comparable to 304 stainless steel in most environments, and is generally superior to the 400 series stainless steels. It is used in applications where the combination of moderate corrosion resistance and unusually high strength are required. Alloy 17-4PH has corrosion resistance comparable to 304L in some chemical, dairy, food, paper and petroleum applications.

Alloy 17-4PH in the solution-annealed condition (Condition A) should not generally be put in service. The alloy is subject to brittle fractures and more sensitive to chloride stress corrosion cracking than the aged material.

If risks of chloride stress corrosion cracking are present the higher aging temperatures should be selected over 1022°F (550°C), preferably 1094°F (590°C). 1022°F (550°C) is the recommended tempering temperature in chloride service. 1094°F (590°C) is preferred in H2S media.

Alloy 17-4PH is subject to crevice corrosion and pitting attack when exposed to stagnant seawater for a duration of time.


15-5 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Stainless steel 15 – 5 PH, also known as XM-12 or UNS S15500, is a modification of 17-4 PH developed in the 1960s. It has a more refined microstructure obtained through the remelting process. This refined structure improves toughness of the material. UNS S15500 also has low temperature hardening, good fabrication properties and excellent corrosion resistance, which makes it suitable for many industries. It can be machined in the solution-annealed state or in final heat treat condition. The strength and ductility of UNS S15500 can be enhanced through heating the material at different temperatures.

UNS S15500 is a martensitic precipitation hardening type stainless steel. Martensitic stainless steels were designed to be corrosion resistant and hardened through heat treatment.

201 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Stainless steels are high-alloy steels, which have high corrosion resistance when compared to other steels due to the presence of large amounts of chromium. Based on their crystalline structure, they are further divided into ferritic, austenitic, and martensitic steels. Another group of stainless steels are known as precipitation-hardened steels. They are the combination of martensitic and austenitic steels.

Grade 201 stainless steel has good formability, corrosion resistance, and fabricability. It is similar to that of 301 stainless steel. The following datasheet gives more details about grade 201 stainless steel.


1.4571 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Stainless steel types 1.4401 and 1.4404 are also known as grades 316 and 316L respectively. Grade 316 is an austenitic grade second only to 304 in commercial importance.
316 stainless steel contains an addition of molybdenum that gives it improved corrosion resistance. This is particularly apparent for pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments.
316L, the low carbon version of 316 stainless steel, is immune to grain boundary carbide precipitation (sensitisation). This makes it suited to use in heavy gauge (over about 6mm) welded components. 
For elevated temperature applications the high carbon variant, 316H stainless steel and the stabilised grade 316Ti stainless steel should be employed.
The austenitic structure of 316 stainless steel gives excellent toughness, even at cryogenic temperatures.
Property data given in this document is typical for bar products covered by EN 10088-3:2005. ASTM, EN or other standards may cover products sold. It is reasonable to expect specifications in these standards to be similar but not necessarily identical to those given in this datasheet.

Stainless steel grade 316Ti contains a small amount of titanium. Titanium content is typically only around 0.5%. The titanium atoms stabilise the structure of the 316 at temperatures over 800°C. This prevents carbide precipitation at the grain boundaries and protects the metal from corrosion. The main advantage of 316Ti is that it can be held at higher temperatures for a longer period without sensitisation (precipitation) occurring. 316Ti retains physical and mechanical properties similar to standard grades of 316.

18-8 stainless steel corrosion resistance

18-8: 300 series stainless steel having approximately (not exactly) 18% chromium and 8% nickel. The term "18-8" is used interchangeably to characterize fittings made of 302, 302HQ, 303, 304, 305, 384, XM7, and other variables of these grades with close chemical compositions. There is little overall difference in corrosion resistance among the "18-8" types, but slight differences in chemical composition do make certain grades more resistant than others do against particular chemicals or atmospheres. "18-8" has superior corrosion resistance to 400 series stainless, is generally nonmagnetic, and is hardenable only by cold working.

17-4 stainless steel corrosion resistance

17-4 Precipitation Hardening also known as Type 630 is a chromium-copper precipitation hardening stainless steel used for applications requiring high strength and a moderate level of corrosion resistance. High strength is maintained to approximately 600 degrees Fahrenheit (316 degrees Celsius).

General Properties

Alloy 17-4 PH is a precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel with Cu and Nb/Cb additions. The grade combines high strength, hardness (up to 572°F / 300°C), and corrosion resistance.

Mechanical properties can be optimized with heat treatment. Very high yield strength up to 1100-1300 MPa (160-190 ksi) can be achieved.

The grade should not be used at temperatures above 572°F (300°C) or at very low temperatures. It has adequate resistance to atmospheric corrosion or in diluted acids or salts where its corrosion resistance is equivalent to Alloy 304 or 430.

17-7 stainless steel corrosion resistance

The two main properties of precipitation-hardened stainless steels are high corrosion resistance and high strength. Stainless steel grade 17-7 PH is a precipitation hardened stainless steel that possesses high strength and hardness, excellent fatigue properties, good formability, good corrosion resistance, and minimal distortion upon heat treatment. The properties of this alloy are well suited for aerospace applications.

Stainless steel grade 17-7 PH is suitable for use in fresh water and industrial atmospheres, and mild chemical and oxidizing environments. It is recommended that 17-7 PH should not be used in salt water or reducing environments.

17-7 PH stainless steel  is a precipitation hardened stainless steel that provides high strength and hardness, excellent fatigue properties, good corrosion resistance, good formability, and minimum distortion upon heat treatment. In high-heat treated conditions, 17-7PH stainless steel possesses excellent mechanical properties. 
The alloy provides valuable property combinations parcularly well suited for aerospace applications. This special alloy also provides benefits for other applications requiring high strength and good corrosion resistance - with excellent properties at temperatures up to 600° F.

Precision Steel  Warehouse carries 17-7 PH Stainless Steel in Condition A and Condition C. 17-7 Stainless Steel requires 3 steps in heat treating including austenite conditioning, cooling to transform the austenite to martensite, and precipitation hardening (for Condition TH & RH).

17-4ph stainless steel corrosion resistance

The discovery of metals has resulted in the production of many products that are part and parcel of our daily lives. Metals are used in manufacturing items such as an ordinary saucepan to space-going vessels. Individual metals tend to have certain characteristic and properties. Certain components need elements with particular properties. When a metal is unable to be suited to a particular application, it is combined with one or more elements resulting in an alloy.

Stainless steel is an example of a common alloy used in the fabrication of many products. To further strengthen the stainless steel, they are subjected to heat treatments which result in the precipitation hardening stainless steel material. One of the most used types of PH stainless steel is 17-4 PH stainless steel.

There are many things that you probably did not know about the alloy? Take heart, though. You will be amazed by how much you did not know about the most commonly used types of stainless steel. The following are seven things that you probably did not know about type 17-4 PH stainless steel:

Most Common Type of Precipitated Hardening Stainless Steel

PH stainless steels are a group of alloys that are resistant to the effects of corrosion. To increase their yield strength, these alloys are subjected to heat treatment during precipitation hardening (PH) or age hardening.

You must be wondering what all these terminologies mean. Usually, PH alloys are kept at elevated temperatures for an extended time frame. This allows precipitation to take place.

Hopefully, you remember your elementary science classes at this point. This aging or time-delayed technique tends to significantly increase the alloys yield strength.

During PH-treating, certain “impure” particles are added to the stainless steel. Such particles include elements such as molybdenum, copper, titanium or aluminum, either in combination or singly.

There are three main types of PH stainless steel, namely:

  1. Low Carbon Martensitic
  2. Semi-Austenitic
  3. Austenitic

Type 17-4 PH stainless steel is the most common type of martensitic PH stainless steel. At low temperatures of 250 degrees Centigrade, the martensitic alloy transforms to martensite. Martensite is basically a steel crystalline structure that is hard.

The stainless steel alloy can harden further by aging at temperatures ranging between 480-620 degrees Centigrade. The combination of the alloy’s superior properties allows it to increase product reliability while making fabrication simple and cost effective. Type 17-4 PH stainless steel has applications in industries like paper, petrochemical, aerospace and food processing. It is widely used in various general metalwork applications.

Use in Marine Vessels: Great Resistance to Effects of Corrosion

The alloy has superior resistance to corrosion and has high mechanical strength. This enables it to be used in marine applications. The fact that it is resistant to corrosion enables it to survive exposure to salty sea water.

You should know that one of the elements that confer the alloy with high resistance is chromium. Type 17-4 PH stainless steel contains between 15-17.5% of chromium in its composition. In this regard, a seagoing vessel’s pump and valve parts are made of type 17-4 PH stainless steel.

Most of the parts of that ship that you went on that annual cruise are made from type 17-4 PH stainless steel. Most of the process piping, seawater piping, and heat exchangers are made of the alloy.

Use of Type 17-4 PH Stainless Steel in Nuclear Industries

Did you know that the alloy has been used in the nuclear power generation industry? Well, what usually happens during nuclear power generation is there is the use of fuel during the process. The used fuel should be given some time to cool and be stored. Used or spent fuel from nuclear power generation is stored in a dry cask.

The dry cask is usually fabricated using type 17-4 PH stainless steel. The spent fuel in the cask has an inert gas surrounding layer. The steel cylinder cask is usually butted or welded closed. The great welding characteristics of the alloy allow this to be possible.

This design of the dry cask using type 17-4 PH stainless steel ensures that the radioactive spent fuel is in a safe storage design that is 100% leak proof. To ensure that there is adequate radiation shielding for you, in case you work in such a plant, reinforcement is achieved using extra steel, concrete or other material.

Use in Pulp and Paper Industries

To increase its strength during PH treatment, some elements are added to the stainless steel. The composition of type 17-4 PH stainless steel is as follows:

  1. Carbon-0.07%
  2. Manganese-1.00%
  3. Sulphur-0.03%
  4. Tantalum and Colombium-0.15-0.45%
  5. Chromium-15-17.50%
  6. Silicon-1.00%
  7. Nickel-3.00-5.00%
  8. Copper-3.00-5.00%

15-5 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Stainless steel 15 – 5 PH, also known as XM-12 or UNS S15500, is a modification of 17-4 PH developed in the 1960s. It has a more refined microstructure obtained through the remelting process. This refined structure improves toughness of the material. UNS S15500 also has low temperature hardening, good fabrication properties and excellent corrosion resistance, which makes it suitable for many industries. It can be machined in the solution-annealed state or in final heat treat condition. The strength and ductility of UNS S15500 can be enhanced through heating the material at different temperatures.

UNS S15500 is a martensitic precipitation hardening type stainless steel. Martensitic stainless steels were designed to be corrosion resistant and hardened through heat treatment.

202 stainless steel corrosion resistance (Stainless Steel Grade 202 (UNS S20200)

Grade 202 stainless steel is a type of Cr-Ni-Mn stainless with similar properties to A240/SUS 302 stainless steel. The toughness of grade 202 at low temperatures is excellent.

It is one of the most widely used precipitation hardening grades, and possesses good corrosion resistance, toughness, high harness, and strength.

The following datasheet provides an overview of grade 202 B stainless steel.

2205 stainless steel corrosion resistance (Grade 2205 for High Corrosion Resistance and Strength)

Duplex 2205 stainless steel (both ferritic and austenitic) is used extensively in applications that require good corrosion resistance and strength. The S31803 grade stainless steel has undergone a number of modifications resulting in UNS S32205, and was endorsed in the year 1996. This grade offers higher resistance to corrosion.

At temperatures above 300°C, the brittle micro-constituents of this grade undergo precipitation, and at temperatures below -50°C the micro-constituents undergo ductile-to-brittle transition; hence this grade of stainless steel is not suitable for use at these temperatures.

Combining many of the beneficial properties of both ferritic and austenitic steels, 2205 is the most widely used duplex stainless steel grade. Its high chromium and molybdenum content gives the stainless steel excellent corrosion resistance. The microstructure provides resistance to stress corrosion cracking and ensures high strength.

The grade is generally not suitable for use at temperatures above 300oC or below -50oC because of reduced toughness outside this range.

You are most likely to encounter 2205 stainless steel being used in industrial environments such as petrochemical, chemical, oil, gas and paper plants.

Corrosion Resistance

Grade 2205 stainless steel exhibits excellent corrosion resistance, much higher than that of grade 316. It resists localized corrosion types like intergranular, crevice and pitting. The CPT of this type of stainless steel is around 35°C. This grade is resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC) at temperatures of 150°C. Grade 2205 stainless steels are apt replacements to austenitic grades, especially in premature failure environments and marine environments. 

The grade has excellent corrosion resistance and is superior to grade 316, performing well in most environments where standard austenitic grades may fail. 2205's low carbon content gives the grade a high resistance to intergranular corrosion and has better resistance to uniform, pitting and crevice corrosion due to its high chromium and molybdenum content.

As 2205 is a duplex stainless steel, the grade is also less sensitive to stress corrosion cracking in warm chloride environments, unlike austenitic stainless steels. The grade also has good resistance to stress corrosion cracking when exposed to hydrogen sulphide in chloride solutions.

High mechanical strength combined with excellent corrosion resistance gives 2205 high corrosion fatigue resistance.

Alternative Grades

2205 has been available for several years - in general this complies with UNS grade designation S31803. More recently, product has become available complying with the higher corrosion resistant composition UNS S32205, as in table 1. Both these alternatives are known as 2205.

Composition

Grade 2205 has a micro structure of roughly equal amounts of ferrite and austenite, hence the 'duplex' description. The duplex structure of 2205 has the following properties:

  • High strength.
  • Lower thermal expansion co-effecient than austenitic steels but greater than carbon steels.
  • High resistance to corrosion, particularly stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue and erosion.

The high content of chromium and molybdenum and the addition of nitrogen gives the steel further beneficial characteristics:

  • High general corrosion resistance.
  • High pitting and crevice corrosion resistance.
  • Good sulphide stress corrosion cracking resistance.

The addition of nitrogen gives a further increase in pitting and crevice corrosion resistance.

Table 1: Composition of 2205 and Alternative Grades (Single Values are Maximum)

Grade Common Name C% Mn% Si% P% S% Cr% Ni% Mo% N%
S31803 2205 0.030 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.020 21.0-23.0 4.5-6.5 2.5-3.5 0.08-0.20
S32205 2205 0.030 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.020 22.0-23.0 4.5-6.5 3.0-3.5 0.14-0.20

200 series stainless steel corrosion resistance

Austenitic steels, which includes both the 200 and 300 series stainless steels, are defined by their face-centred cubic structure. That is, the crystal structure has one atom at each corner of the cube and one in the middle of each face.

This is as opposed to ferritic steels, which are characterized by a body-centered cubic structure.

Nickel is the most commonly used element to produce this crystal structure, however, due to a shortage of nickel during and immediately after World War II, efforts were made to reduce use of the metal. This led to the substitution of nitrogen for nickel in the production of some austenitic corrosion-resistant steels, and the creation of 200 series of stainless steels.

While nitrogen alloyed in steel will also form a face-centred cubic structure, it results in harmful chromium nitrides and increases gas porosity. The addition of manganese allows more nitrogen to be safely added, however, nickel cannot be completely removed from the alloy. 200 series stainless steels are, consequently, characterized by their nitrogen and manganese content.

Production and demand for low nickel stainless steels surged in the 1980s as nickel prices soared and, again, efforts were made to reduce use of the metal.

This led to the development of a huge production increase in India. Asia is now a major source for, and consumer of, this family of steels.Chemical Composition of 200 Series Stainless Steels

Grade Chemical Composition
AISI UNS Cr Ni Mn N Cu
304 S30400 18.0-20.0 8.0-10.5 2.0 max. 0.10 max. -
201 S20100 16.0-18.0 3.5-5.5 5.5-7.5 0.25 max. -
202 S20200 17.0-19.0 4.0-6.0 7.5-10.0 0.25 max. -
204 Cu S20430 15.5-17.5 1.5-3.5 6.5-9.0 0.05-0.25 2.0-4.0
205 S20500 16.5-18.0 1.0-1.75 14.0-15.5 0.32-0.40 -

304 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Type 304, with its chromium-nickel content and low carbon, is the most versatile and widely used of the austenitic stainless steels. Its alloys are all modifications of the 18% chromium, 8% nickel austenitic alloy. Type 304 proves to be resistant to oxidation, corrosion, and durability. All provide ease of fabrication and cleaning, prevention of product contamination offer a variety of finishes and appearances. Type 304 stainless steels are used in corrosion resistant electrical enclosures, auto molding and trim, wheel covers, kitchen equipment, hose clamps, exhaust manifolds, stainless hardware, storage tanks, pressure vessels and piping.

303 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Alloy 303 is a non-magnetic, austenitic stainless steel that is not hardenable by heat treatment. It is the free machining modification of the basic 18% chromium / 8% nickel stainless steel. Alloy 303 was specially designed to exhibit improved machinability while maintaining good mechanical and corrosion resistant properties Due to the presence of sulfur in the steel composition, Alloy 303 is the most readily machineable austenitic stainless steel; however, the sulfur addition does lower Alloy 303’s corrosion resistance to below that of Alloy 304. Like other austenitic grades, Alloy 303 demonstrates excellent toughness, although the sulfur does reduce this a little as well.

316 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Type 316 stainless steel is an austenitic chromium-nickel stainless and heat-resisting steel with superior corrosion resistance as compared to other chromium-nickel steels when exposed to many types of chemical corrodents such as sea water, brine solutions, and the like. Since Type 316 stainless steel alloy contains molybdenum bearing it has a greater resistance to chemical attack than 304. Type 316 is durable, easy-to-fabricate, clean, weld and finish. It is considerably more resistant to solutions of sulfuric acid, chlorides, bromides, iodides and fatty acids at high temperature. Stainless steels containing molybdenum are required in the manufacture of certain pharmaceuticals in order to avoid excessive metallic contamination. The bottom line is that Type 316 stainless steel costs a little more upfront but you could save a whole lot on the back end – especially if your enclosure is going to be used outdoors. Something worth keeping in mind when you’re designing your next enclosure.

316l stainless steel corrosion resistance (Stainless Steel - Grade 316L (UNS S31603)

Corrosion Resistance

Excellent in a range of atmospheric environments and many corrosive media - generally more resistant than 304. Subject to pitting and crevice corrosion in warm chloride environments, and to stress corrosion cracking above about 60 °C. Considered resistant to potable water with up to about 1000 mg/L chlorides at ambient temperatures, reducing to about 500 mg/L at 60 °C.

316 is usually regarded as the standard “marine grade stainless steel”, but it is not resistant to warm sea water. In many marine environments 316 does exhibit surface corrosion, usually visible as brown staining. This is particularly associated with crevices and rough surface finish.

Grade 316 is the standard molybdenum-bearing grade, second in importance to 304 amongst the austenitic stainless steels. The molybdenum gives 316 better overall corrosion resistant properties than Grade 304, particularly higher resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride environments.

Grade 316L, the low carbon version of 316 and is immune from sensitisation (grain boundary carbide precipitation). Thus it is extensively used in heavy gauge welded components (over about 6mm). There is commonly no appreciable price difference between 316 and 316L stainless steel.

The austenitic structure also gives these grades excellent toughness, even down to cryogenic temperatures.

Compared to chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steels, 316L stainless steel offers higher creep, stress to rupture and tensile strength at elevated temperatures.

Key Properties
These properties are specified for flat rolled product (plate, sheet and coil) in ASTM A240/A240M. Similar but not necessarily identical properties are specified for other products such as pipe and bar in their respective specifications.

302 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Alloy 302 is a variations of the 18% chromium / 8% nickel austenitic alloy, which is the most familiar and the most frequently used in the stainless steel family. Alloy 302 is a slightly higher carbon version of 304, often found in strip and wire forms. It is a tough, ductile grade that demonstrates comparable corrosion resistance, is non-magnetic, and is not hardenable by heat treatment. Alloy 302 is usually used in its annealed condition and has a high ease of fabrication and formability.

Each alloy represents an excellent combination of corrosion resistance and fabricability. This combination of properties is the reason for the extensive use of these alloys which represent nearly one half of the total U.S. stainless steel production. Type 304 represents the largest volume followed by Type 304L. Types 302 and 305 are used in smaller quantities. These alloys are covered by a variety of construction or use of equipment manufactured from these alloys for specific conditions. Food and beverage, sanitary, cryogenic, and pressure-containing applications are examples. Past users of Type 302 are generally now using Type 304 since AOD technology has made lower carbon levels more easily attainable and economical. There are instances, such as in temper rolled products, when Type 302 is preferred over Type 304 since the higher carbon permits meeting of yield and tensile strength requirements while maintaining a higher level of ductility (elongation) versus that of the lower carbon Type 304. Type 304L is used for welded products which might be exposed to conditions which could cause intergranular corrosion in service. Type 305 is used for applications requiring a low rate of work hardening during severe cold forming operations such as deep drawing.

314 stainless steel corrosion resistance (Stainless Steel Grade 314 (UNS S31400)

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STAINLESS 314
Type 314 stainless steel is effectively a 310 type stainless with a higher level of silicon, for increased high-temperature oxidation resistance.
Stainless steel grade 314 has excellent high-temperature resistance characteristics among the chromium-nickel steels series. The silicon content in this material improves oxidation and carburization resistance; however, it can become very brittle when subjected to prolonged temperatures of 649-816°C (1200- 1500°F).

305 stainless steel corrosion resistance ( Stainless Steel - Grade 305 (UNS S30500)

Stainless steels are high-alloy steels which have higher corrosion resistance than other steels owing to the presence of large amounts of chromium in the range of 4 to 30%.

Stainless steels are classified into martensitic, ferritic and austenitic based on their crystalline structure. In addititon, they form another group known as precipitation-hardened steels, which are a combination of martensitic and austenitic steels.

Description:
Type 305 Stainless Steel is an austenitic chromium nickel stainless steel that can be cold worked and deep drawn more readably than Type 302 and Type 304 due to an increased nickel content that decreases the work hardening rate of the material. It is nonmagnetic and cannot be hardened by thermal treatment.

Product Forms:
Sheet, Strip

Specifications:
ASTM A240, AMS 5514

Typical Applications:
Deep drawn or spun components, eyelets, electronic enclosure applications

321 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Description:
Type 321 Stainless Steel is a stabilized austenitic stainless steel similar to Type 304 but with a titanium addition of at least five times the carbon content. This titanium addition reduces or prevents carbide precipitation during welding and in 800 - 1500°F service. It also improves the elevated temperature properties of the alloy. Type 321 provides excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion and possesses good creep strength. It is used primarily in applications involving continuous and intermittent service temperatures within the carbide precipitation range of 800 - 1500°F.

Product Forms:
Sheet, Strip

Specifications:
ASTM A240

Typical Applications:
annealing covers, high-temperature tempering equipment, diesel and heavy duty automotive exhaust systems, firewalls, stack liners, boiler casings, welded pressure vessels, jet aircraft components, radiant super heaters, bellows and oil refinery equipment

410 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Description:
Type 410 Stainless Steel is a martensitic stainless steel that provides good corrosion resistance plus high strength and hardness. It is magnetic in both the annealed and hardened conditions. A wide range of properties can be developed with different heat treatments.

Product Forms:
Sheet, Strip Specifications: ASTM A240

Typical Applications:
Flat springs, knives, kitchen utensils and hand tools

416 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Corrosion Resistance

Grade 416 steels are highly resistant to acids, alkalis, fresh water and dry air. However, they are less corrosion resistant than non-free-machining steels, austenitic grades and grade 430 Ferritic alloys with 17% chromium. These steels are hardened to obtain maximum corrosion resistance and smooth surface. 416 free-machining grades with high sulphur content are inappropriate for chloride and marine environments.

Grade 416 steel is a free-machining stainless steel with a machinability of 85%, highest of all stainless steels. With most of the free-machining stainless steels, the machinability can be improved by adding sulphur, which leads to the formation of manganese sulphide inclusions. Addition of sulphur also reduces the formability, weldability and corrosion resistance of 416 steels to below that of grade 410. Because of their high machinability and low cost, grade 416 steels are available in highly tempered, hardened or unhardened forms.

Martensitic steels with high hardness are manufactured using methods that require final hardening and tempering treatments. The corrosion resistance of these steels is lower than that of austenitic steels. Decrease in the ductility of martensitic steels at sub-zero temperatures, and strength at high temperatures due to over-tempering, are the two key factors that affect their operating temperatures.

430 stainless steel corrosion resistance (Stainless Steel - Grade 430 (UNS S43000)

Corrosion Resistance

All ferritic grades, such as stainless steel grade 430, have excellent stress corrosion cracking resistance. Grade 430 has good corrosion resistance to numerous substances, such as certain organic acids and nitric acid. The corrosion resistance is maximized in well-polished or buffed condition. Its pitting and crevice corrosion resistance is quite similar to that of grade 304. 430F is a high-sulfur free machining grade, and therefore the resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion is comparatively lesser than those grades that are non-free machining. 

Stainless steel grade 430 is a non-hardenable steel containing straight chromium, and belongs to the ferritic group of steels. This steel is known for its good corrosion resistance and formability, coupled with practical mechanical properties. It can be used in certain chemical applications due to its resistance to nitric acid.

Grade 430F stainless steel is usually provided in bar form to be used in automatic screw machines.

Grade 434 has similar properties as grade 430, although it is a molybdenum-bearing version. The molybdenum content enhances its corrosion resistance.

440c stainless steel corrosion resistance (Stainless Steel – Grade 440C (UNS S44004)

Stainless steels are high-alloy steels which have high corrosion resistance compared to other steels due to the presence of large amounts of chromium. Based on their crystalline structure, they are divided into three types such as ferritic, austenitic, and martensitic steels. Another group of stainless steels are precipitation-hardened steels. They are a combination of martensitic and austenitic steels.

Grade 440C stainless steel is a high carbon martensitic stainless steel. It has high strength, moderate corrosion resistance, and good hardness and wear resistance.

The following datasheet gives an overview of grade 440C stainless steel.

420 stainless steel corrosion resistance (Stainless Steel - Grade 420 (UNS S42000)

Corrosion Resistance

Under hardened conditions, grade 420 steels are resistant to fresh water, alkalis, air, foods and mild acids. The steel grades with a smooth surface finish have excellent performance. The corrosion resistance properties of grade 420 will tend to fall under annealed conditions. The corrosion resistance of grade 420 is lower than that of the grade 430 Ferritic alloys with 17% chromium, grade 410 steels and other austenitic grades.

This steel grade finds application in cutlery such as carving knives, table knives and so on. Grade 420 steels have good corrosion resistance against food, but continuous exposure of metals to unwashed food substances can lead to pitting corrosion.

Grade 420 stainless steel is a high-carbon steel with a minimum chromium content of 12%. Like any other stainless steel, grade 420 can also be hardened through heat treatment. It offers good ductility in its annealed state and excellent corrosion resistance properties when the metal is polished, surface grounded or hardened. This grade has the highest hardness - 50HRC - among all the stainless steel grades with 12% chromium.

Stainless steel grades that are similar to grade 420 stainless steels include martensitic steels such as the other versions of grade 420, having vanadium, sulphur and molybdenum in their composition, and the grade 440 series. Non-standard grade 420C has carbon content that is little higher than that of grade 420.

Martensitic stainless steels are ones with high hardness and high carbon content. These steels are generally fabricated using methods that require hardening and tempering treatments. The operating conditions of martensitic steels are affected by loss of material’s strength at high temperatures, and decrease in ductility at negative temperatures.

409 stainless steel corrosion resistance (Stainless Steel - Grade 409 (UNS S40900)

Grade 409 stainless steel is a Ferritic steel that offers good mechanical properties and high-temperature corrosion resistance. It is commonly considered as a chromium stainless steel, with applications in exhaust systems of automobiles and applications that demand weldability.

Grade 409 steels are also available in highly stabilized forms, such as grades S40930, S40920 and S40910. The stability of these grades is provided by the presence of niobium, titanium, or both, in the composition of steels.

Grade 409 stainless steels have excellent resistance to exhaust gas and atmospheric corrosion, superior to that of 410 martensitic grades with 12% chromium and 3CR12. However, the corrosion resistance is lower than that of grade 430 steels containing 17% chromium. The surface of grade 409 steels is liable to mild corrosion, which limits the usage of steels for decorative purposes.

440 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Grade 440C stainless steels are high carbon steels, which attain the highest hardness, wear resistance and strength of all stainless steel grades after heat treatment. These properties make this grade suitable for applications such as valve components and ball bearings. Grade 440A and 440B stainless steels, on the other hand, have similar properties - except for a slightly lower percentage of carbon in grade 440A.

All three forms of grade 440 steels are commonly used. However, grade 440C is more readily available than the other standard grades. Grade 440F, a free-machining type of grade 440 series, is also available with a high carbon content similar to that of grade 440C. Martensitic steel grades are high-hardness steels, usually fabricated using techniques that require hardening and tempering treatments.

These grades have a corrosion resistance lower than that of other austenitic grades. The applications of martensitic steels are limited by the loss of strength caused by over-tempering at high temperatures, and loss of ductility at temperatures below zero.

431 stainless steel corrosion resistance

Corrosion Resistance

Grade 431 stainless steels have considerable resistance to salt water, but they are less resistant to tropical water when compared to that of grade 316 steels. Grade 431 steels have overall corrosion resistance similar to, or slightly lower than, that of grade 304 steels.

Grade 431 steels with a smooth surface finish perform well in tempered and hardened conditions.

439 stainless steel corrosion resistance (Stainless steel Grade 439 (UNS S43035)

Stainless steel grade 439 is capable of being made into complex shapes such as tubular manifolds and exhaust system components, where temperatures tend to go beyond the oxidation limit of grade 409 steel. It is also preferred where wet corrosion resistance especially to chlorides is needed.

Stainless steel grade 439 has good weldability, brightness, and pitting corrosion resistance. It polishes well, and is good for deep drawing.

430f stainless steel corrosion resistance (Stainless Steel – Grade 430F (UNS S43020)

Stainless steels are called as high-alloy steels. Due to the presence of large amounts of chromium in the range of 4 to 30%, they have high corrosion resistance than other steels. Stainless steels are classified into martensitic, ferritic and austenitic based on their crystalline structure. However, stainless steels present in the form of a combination of martensitic and austenitic steels are known as precipitation-hardened steels.

The following datasheet will provide more details about grade 430F stainless steel, which has moderate strength and corrosion resistance.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF STAINLESS STEEL 430F
This alloy, a ferritic stainless steel, is a free-machining version of type 430.

APPLICATIONS OF STAINLESS STEEL 430F
The alloy should be considered when machining is involved. It may be used in screw machines for aircraft parts, gears etc., where the appropriate corrosion resistance is required.

FORGING STAINLESS STEEL 430F
The material should be heated to 1500/1600ºF (815/870ºC) then up to forging temperature, 1950/2100ºF (1070/1150ºC) as quickly as possible. The stock should be forged after a minimum of time at forging temperature – to prevent grain growth – and not forged below 1500ºF (815ºC.) Forgings should be air cooled then annealed.

904l stainless steel corrosion resistance (Stainless Steel - Grade 904L (UNS N08904)

Corrosion Resistance

Grade 904L stainless steels have excellent resistance to warm seawater and chloride attack. The high resistance of grade 904L against stress corrosion cracking is due to the presence of high amounts of nickel in its composition. Moreover, the addition of copper to these grades develops resistance to sulphuric acid and other reducing agents in both aggressive and mild conditions.

The corrosion resistance of grade 904L is intermediate between super austenitic grades, with 6% molybdenum content, and standard 316L austenitic grades. Grade 904L is less resistant to nitric acid than grades 304L and 310L, which are free of molybdenum. This steel grade needs to be solution treated following cold working, to achieve maximum stress corrosion cracking resistance under critical environments.

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