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Stainless Steels Classifications

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HomeTypes of Sheet PlateStainless Steels Classifications

Stainless Steels Classifications, Stainless Steel Equivalent Grades

stainless steel classification chart, stainless steel classification, stainless steel classification aisi, stainless steel grades

stainless steel grades chart, stainless steel grade 304, stainless steel grades explained, stainless steel grade 316, stainless steel classifications, stainless steel grades and uses, stainless steel grades and composition

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Stainless Steels Classifications

Stainless steels are commonly grouped into martensitic stainless steels, ferritic stainless steels, austenitic stainless steels, duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels

Stainless steels are in general grouped into

  • martensitic stainless steels
  • ferritic stainless steels
  • austenitic stainless steels
  • duplex (ferritic-austenitic) stainless steels
  • precipitation-hardening stainless steels

Alloying metallic elements added during the making of the steel increase corrosion resistance, hardness, or strength. The metals used most commonly as alloying elements in stainless steel include chromium, nickel, and molybdenum.

Stainless steels are available in the form of

  • plate
  • sheet
  • strip
  • foil
  • bar
  • wire
  • pipes
  • tubes

Stainless steels are a iron-based alloy containing at between 10.5% to 30% Cr. Stainless steel achieve its stainless characteristic through the formation of an invisible and adherent chromium-rich oxide surface film.

Other alloying elements added to improve the characteristics of the stainless steel include nickel, molybdenum, copper, titanium, aluminum, silicon, niobium, nitrogen, sulphur, and selenium.

Carbon is normally in amounts from 0.03% to more than 1.0% in some martensitic grades.

Selection of stainless steels are in general based on

  • corrosion resistance
  • fabrication characteristics
  • availability
  • mechanical properties for specific temperature ranges
  • product cost

Since stainless steel resists corrosion, maintains its strength at high temperatures, and is easily maintained, it is widely used in items such as automotive and food processing products, as well as medical and health equipment. The most common US grades of stainless steel are:

TYPE 304

The most commonly specified austenitic (chromium-nickel stainless class) stainless steel, accounting for more than half of the stainless steel produced in the world. This grade withstands ordinary corrosion in architecture, is durable in typical food processing environments, and resists most chemicals. Type 304 is available in virtually all product forms and finishes.

TYPE 316

Austenitic (chromium-nickel stainless class) stainless steel containing 2%-3% molybdenum (whereas 304 has none). The inclusion of molybdenum gives 316 greater resistance to various forms of deterioration.

TYPE 409

Ferritic (plain chromium stainless category) stainless steel suitable for high temperatures. This grade has the lowest chromium content of all stainless steels and thus is the least expensive.

TYPE 410

The most widely used martensitic (plain chromium stainless class with exceptional strength) stainless steel, featuring the high level of strength conferred by the martensitics. It is a low-cost, heat-treatable grade suitable for non-severe corrosion applications.

TYPE 430

The most widely used ferritic (plain chromium stainless category) stainless steel, offering general-purpose corrosion resistance, often in decorative applications.

AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS
TYPE Equivalent UNS
201 S20100
202 S20200
205 S20500
301 S30100
302 S30200
302B S30215
303 S30300
303Se S30323
304 S30400
304L S30403
302HQ S30430
304N S30451
305 S30500
308 S30800
309 S30900
309S S30908
310 S31000
310S S31008
314 S31400
316 S31600
316L S31603
316F S31620
316N S31651
317 S31700
317L S31703
317LMN S31726
321 S32100
330 NO8330
347 S34700
348 S34800
384 S38400

Give us a call today to get all the information, +91-98210 71212, If you're looking to buy or sell Stainless Steel Sheet Plate, Coil Strip, we can help., call to our Distributor in India or mail us to sales@technicalmetalcorp.com for instant free quote of Stainless Steel Sheet Plate, Coil Strip

FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS
TYPE Equivalent UNS
405 S40500
409 S40900
429 S42900
430 S43000
430F S43020
430FSe S43023
434 S43400
436 S43600
442 S44200
446 S44600
MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEELS
TYPE Equivalent UNS
403 S40300
410 S41000
414 S41400
416 S41600
416Se S41623
420 S42000
420F S42020
422 S42200
431 S43100
440A S44002
440B S44003
440C S44004

Stainless Steels
The roster of stainless steel classifications is vast. Fortunately, this metal is easily distinguished from the others, because three-digit numbers are used instead of four. Most fall in the 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 series.

As discussed in Visually Identifying Common Metals. stainless steel is manufactured in different ways to achieve specific properties. The main categories are Austenitic, Martensitic, Ferritic, Precipitation Hardening and Duplex.

Stainless steels may also be idenfitied by their chromium/nickel percentages. You see designations like 18-8, 15-5, 17-7, etc. The first number indicates the percentage of chromium added to the steel, the second number the percent nickel.

For welders, the most common stainless steel filler rod you'll see is 304L, used on austenitic grades. The L stands for low carbon, which provides greater corrosion resistance. For more on stainless steel filler rods, see TIG Welding Rods.

SAE Stainless Steels

200 Series—austenitic chromium-nickel-manganese alloys

201—austenitic; hardenable through cold working
202—austenitic; general purpose stainless steel

300 Series—austenitic chromium-nickel alloys

301—highly ductile, for formed products. Also hardens rapidly during mechanical working. Good weldability. Better wear resistance and fatigue strength than 304.
302—same corrosion resistance as 304, with slightly higher strength due to additional carbon.
303—easier machining version of 304 via addition of sulfur and phosphorus. Also referred to as "A1" in accordance with ISO 3506.
304—the most common grade; the classic 18/8 stainless steel. Also referred to as "A2" in accordance with ISO 3506.
304L—extra low carbon version of 304 used extensively in welding.
309—offers better temperature resistance than 304
316—the second most common grade (after 304); for food and surgical stainless steel uses; alloy addition of molybdenum prevents specific forms of corrosion. 316 steel is used in the manufacture and handling of food and pharmaceutical products where it is often required in order to minimize metallic contamination. It is also known as marine grade stainless steel due to its increased resistance to chloride corrosion compared to type 304. SS316 is often used for building nuclear reprocessing plants.
Most stainless steel watches are made of this. Also referred to as "A4" in accordance with ISO 3506. 316Ti (which includes titanium for heat resistance) is used in flexible chimney liners, and is able to withstand temperatures up to 2000 degrees Fahrenheit, the hottest possible temperature of a chimney fire.
316L—extra low carbon version of 316.
317—Alloy 317LMN and 317L are molybdenum-bearing austenitic stainless steels with greatly increased resistance to chemical attack as compared to the conventional chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steels such as Alloy 304. In addition, 317LMN and 317L alloys offer higher creep, stress-to-rupture, and tensile strengths at elevated temperatures than conventional stainless steels. All are low carbon or "L" grades to provide resistance to sensitization during welding and other thermal processes. The "M" and "N" designations indicate that the compositions contain increased levels of molybdenum and nitrogen respectively. The combination of molybdenum and nitrogen is particularly effective in enhancing resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion, especially in process streams containing acids, chlorides, and sulfur compounds at elevated temperatures. Nitrogen also serves to increase the strength of these alloys. Both alloys are intended for severe service conditions such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems.
321—similar to 304 but lower risk of weld decay due to addition of titanium.

400 Series—ferritic and martensitic chromium alloys

405—a ferritic especially made for welding applications
408—heat-resistant; poor corrosion resistance; 11% chromium, 8% nickel.
409—cheapest type; used for automobile exhausts; ferritic (iron/chromium only).
410—martensitic (high-strength iron/chromium). Wear-resistant, but less corrosion-resistant.
416—easy to machine due to additional sulfur
420—Cutlery-grade martensitic; similar to the Brearley's original rustless steel. Excellent polishability.
430—decorative, used for automotive trim; ferritic. Good formability, but with reduced temperature and corrosion resistance.
440—a higher grade of cutlery steel, with more carbon in it, which allows for much better edge retention when the steel is heat-treated properly. It can be hardened to around Rockwell 58 hardness, making it one of the hardest stainless steels. Due to its toughness and relatively low cost, most display-only and replica swords or knives are made of 440 stainless. Also known as razor blade steel. Available in four grades: 440A, 440B, 440C, and the uncommon 440F (free machinable). 440A, having the least amount of carbon in it, is the most stain-resistant; 440C, having the most, is the strongest and is usually considered a more desirable choice in knifemaking than 440A except for diving or other salt-water applications.
446—For elevated temperature service.

500 Series—heat-resisting chromium alloys

600 Series—martensitic precipitation hardening alloys

601 through 604: Martensitic low-alloy steels.
610 through 613: Martensitic secondary hardening steels.
614 through 619: Martensitic chromium steels.
630 through 635: Semiaustenitic and martensitic precipitation-hardening stainless steels. Type 630 is most common precipitation-hardening stainless, better known as 17-4; 17% chromium, 4% nickel.
650 through 653: Austenitic steels strengthened by hot/cold work.
660 through 665: Austenitic superalloys; all grades except alloy 661 are strengthened by second-phase precipitation.

15-5 Stainless Steel

Also known as a PH, or precipitation-hardening, grade of stainless, this alloy is used a great deal in the aircraft industry in part due to its strength, and also because there are a wide range of heat treatments to choose from to reach a specified hardness or other properties.

17-4 Stainless Steel

Also known as a PH, or precipitation-hardening, grade of stainless, this alloy is used a great deal in the aircraft industry in part due to its strength, and also because there are a wide range of heat treatments to choose from to reach a specified hardness or other properties. This alloy is very similar to 15-5 except that 17-4 tends to have more ferrite, and is slightly more magnetic.

17-7 Stainless Steel

Also known as a PH, or precipitation-hardening, grade of stainless, this alloy is used a great deal in the aircraft industry in part due to its strength, and also because there are a wide range of heat treatments to choose from to reach a specified hardness or other properties. 17-7 has exceptionally high strength and hardness, as well as the corrosion resistance normally associated with stainless. It is one of the more formable of the PH grades.

 

Give us a call today to get all the information, +91-98210 71212, If you're looking to buy or sell Stainless Steel Sheet Plate, Coil Strip, we can help., call to our Distributor in India or mail us to sales@technicalmetalcorp.com for instant free quote of Stainless Steel Sheet Plate, Coil Strip



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